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Phenotyping

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Open-field test

Purpose

This test is used to evaluate exploratory drive, reactivity to novelty and emotionality. Habituation to the open field, which is a form of non-associative learning, is also measured.

Strain background references

Open-field : total distance

Open-field : total rearings

Open-field : time in center

Mandillo S, Tucci V, Holter SM, Meziane H, Banchaabouchi MA, Kallnik M, Lad HV, Nolan PM, Ouagazzal AM, Coghill EL, Gale K, Golini E, Jacquot S, Krezel W, Parker A, Riet F, Schneider I, Marazziti D, Auwerx J, Brown SD, Chambon P, Rosenthal N, Tocchini-Valentini G, Wurst W. 
Reliability, robustness, and reproducibility in mouse behavioral phenotyping: a cross-laboratory study. 
Physiol Genomics. 2008 Aug 15;34(3):243-55. Epub 2008 May 27.

Equipment

4-8 automated openfield arenas (Panlab, Barcelona, Spain).

Recommendations

10 mice per group are recommended for reliable data analysis.

Light-dark test

Purpose

The light-dark test allow an evaluation of emotional responses of animals in a highly illuminated situation. Mice will normally show a preference for the dark compartment, but they also exhibit some incursions into the lit compartment. Aberrant behavior may indicate changes in anxiety. 

Strain background references

Equipment

4 automated light/dark boxes (Imetronic, Pessac, France).

Recommendations

10 mice per group are recommended for reliable data analysis.

Elevated plus maze

Purpose

The elevated plus maze test allows an evaluation of anxiety for height. Animals are confronted to a choice between threatening environment, an exposed runway elevated from the floor, and relatively safe enclosure. An anxious animal will normally choose to spend time in the closed arms and rarely venture out onto the open arms.

Sample test results

Belzung C, Misslin R, Vogel E, Dodd RH, Chapouthier G. 
Anxiogenic effects of methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate in a light/dark choice situation. 
Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1987 Sep;28(1):29-33.

Griebel G, Misslin R, Pawlowski M, Guardiola Lemaître B, Guillaumet G, Bizot-Espiard J. 
Anxiolytic-like effects of a selective 5-HT1A agonist, S20244, and its enantiomers in mice. 
Neuroreport. 1992 Jan;3(1):84-6.

Misslin R, Griebel G, Saffroy-Spittler M, Vogel E. 
Anxiolytic and sedative effects of 5-HT1A ligands, 8-OH-DPAT and MDL 73005EF, in mice. 
Neuroreport. 1990 Nov-Dec;1(3-4):267-70.

Equipment

An automated elevated maze device  (Imetronic, Pessac, France).

Recommendations

10 mice per group are recommended for reliable data analysis.

Social recognition ("NEW")

Social recognition test evaluates the preference of a mouse for a congener as compared to an object placed in an opposite compartment. This test also used for evaluation of social memory by measuring exploration of a novel congener as compared to a familiar one. Social behavior is altered in several diseases such as autism and mental retardation.

Description details in progress

Social preference - Sniffing duration

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